we'# Developing Genie MVC Apps

Here is a complete walk-through of developing a feature rich MVC app with Genie, including both user facing web pages, a REST API endpoint, and user authentication.

Getting started - creating the app

First, let's create a new Genie MVC app. We'll use Genie's app generator, so first let's make sure we have Genie installed.

Let's start a Julia REPL and add Genie:

pkg> add Genie # press ] from julia> prompt to enter Pkg mode

Now, to create the app:

julia> using Genie

julia> Genie.Generator.newapp_mvc("Watch Tonight")


The newapp_mvc function creates a new app with the given name, although spaces are not allowed in the name and Genie will automatically correct it as WatchTonight. WatchTonight is the name of the app and the name of the main module of the project, in the src/ folder. You will see it used when we will reference the various files in the project, in the using statements.

Genie will bootstrap a new application for us, creating the necessary files and installing dependencies. As we're creating a MVC app, Genie will offer to install support for SearchLight, Genie's ORM, and will ask what database backend we'll want to use:

Please choose the DB backend you want to use:
1. SQLite
2. MySQL
3. PostgreSQL
Input 1, 2 or 3 and press ENTER to confirm

Note that if you select an option other than SQLite, you will need to manually create the database outside of Genie. Currently, Genie only automatically creates SQLite databases.

We'll use SQLite in this demo, so let's press "1". Once the process is completed, Genie will start the new application at We can open it in the browser to see the default Genie home page.

How does this work?

Genie uses the concept of routes and routing in order to map a URL to a request handler (a Julia function) within the app. If we edit the routes.jl file we will see that is has defined a route that states that for any requests to the / URL, the app will display a static file called welcome.html (which can be found in the public/ folder):

route("/") do

Connecting to the database

In order to configure the database connection we need to edit the db/connection.yml file, to make it look like this:


  adapter: SQLite
  database: db/netflix_catalog.sqlite

Now let's manually load the database configuration:

julia> include(joinpath("config", "initializers", "searchlight.jl"))

Creating a Movie resource

A resource is an entity exposed by the application at a URL. In a Genie MVC app it represents a bundle of Model, views, and Controller files - as well as possible additional files such as migration files for creating a database table, tests, a model data validator, etc.

In the REPL run:

julia> Genie.Generator.newresource("movie")

julia> using SearchLight

julia> SearchLight.Generator.newresource("movie")

This should create a series of files to represent the Movie resource - just take a look at the output to see what and where was created.

Creating the DB table using the database migration

We need to edit the migrations file that was just created in db/migrations/. Look for a file that ends in _create_table_movies.jl and make it look like this:

module CreateTableMovies

import SearchLight.Migrations: create_table, column, primary_key, add_index, drop_table

function up()
  create_table(:movies) do
      column(:type, :string, limit = 10)
      column(:title, :string, limit = 100)
      column(:directors, :string, limit = 100)
      column(:actors, :string, limit = 250)
      column(:country, :string, limit = 100)
      column(:year, :integer)
      column(:rating, :string, limit = 10)
      column(:categories, :string, limit = 100)
      column(:description, :string, limit = 1_000)

  add_index(:movies, :title)
  add_index(:movies, :actors)
  add_index(:movies, :categories)
  add_index(:movies, :description)

function down()


Creating the migrations table

In order to be able to manage the app's migrations, we need to create the DB table used by SearchLight's migration system. This is easily done using SearchLight's generators:

julia> SearchLight.Migration.init()

Running the migration

We can now check the status of the migrations:

julia> SearchLight.Migration.status()

We should see that we have one migration that is DOWN (meaning that we need to run the migration because it has not been executed yet).

We execute the migration by running the last migration UP:

julia> SearchLight.Migration.lastup()

If you now recheck the status of the migrations, you should see that the migration is now UP.

Creating the Movie model

Now that we have the database table, we need to create the model file which allows us manage the data. The file has already been created for us in app/resources/movies/Movies.jl. Edit it and make it look like this:

module Movies

import SearchLight: AbstractModel, DbId
import Base: @kwdef

export Movie

@kwdef mutable struct Movie <: AbstractModel
  id::DbId = DbId()
  type::String = "Movie"
  title::String = ""
  directors::String = ""
  actors::String = ""
  country::String = ""
  year::Int = 0
  rating::String = ""
  categories::String = ""
  description::String = ""


Interacting with the movies data

Once our model is created, we can interact with the database:

julia> using Movies

julia> m = Movie(title = "Test movie", actors = "John Doe, Jane Doe")

We can check if our movie object is persisted (saved to the db):

julia> ispersisted(m)

And we can save it:

julia> save(m)

Now we can run various methods against our data:

julia> count(Movie)

julia> all(Movie)

Seeding the data

We're now ready to load the movie data into our database - we'll use a short seeding script. First make sure to place the CVS file into the /db/seeds/ folder. Create the seeds file:

julia> touch(joinpath("db", "seeds", "seed_movies.jl"))

And edit it to look like this:

using SearchLight, WatchTonight.Movies
using CSV

Base.convert(::Type{String}, _::Missing) = ""
Base.convert(::Type{Int}, _::Missing) = 0
Base.convert(::Type{Int}, s::String) = parse(Int, s)

function seed()
  for row in CSV.Rows(joinpath(@__DIR__, "netflix_titles.csv"), limit = 1_000)
    m = Movie()

    m.type = row.type
    m.title = row.title
    m.directors = row.director
    m.actors = row.cast
    m.country = row.country
    m.year = parse(Int, row.release_year)
    m.rating = row.rating
    m.categories = row.listed_in
    m.description = row.description


Add CSV.jl as a dependency of the project:

pkg> add CSV

And download the dataset:

julia> download("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/essenciary/genie-watch-tonight/main/db/seeds/netflix_titles.csv", joinpath("db", "seeds", "netflix_titles.csv"))

Now, to seed the db:

julia> include(joinpath("db", "seeds", "seed_movies.jl"))
julia> seed()

Setting up the web page

We'll start by adding the route to our handler function. Let's open the routes.jl file and add:

# routes.jl
using WatchTonight.MoviesController

route("/movies", MoviesController.index)

This route declares that the /movies URL will be handled by the MoviesController.index index function. Let's put it in by editing /app/resources/movies/MoviesController.jl:

module MoviesController

function index()
  "Welcome to movies list!"


If we navigate to we should see the welcome.

Let's make this more useful though and display a random movie upon landing here:

module MoviesController

using Genie.Renderer.Html, SearchLight, WatchTonight.Movies

function index()
  html(:movies, :index, movies = rand(Movie))


The index function renders the /app/resources/movies/views/index.jl.html view file as HTML, passing it a random movie into the movies instance. Since we don't have the view file yet, let's add it:

julia> touch(joinpath("app", "resources", "movies", "views", "index.jl.html"))

Make it look like this:

<h1 class="display-1 text-center">Watch tonight</h1>
if ! isempty(movies)
  for_each(movies) do movie
    partial(joinpath(Genie.config.path_resources, "movies", "views", "_movie.jl.html"), movie = movie)
  partial(joinpath(Genie.config.path_resources, "movies", "views", "_no_results.jl.html"))

Now to create the _movie.jl.html partial file to render a movie object:

julia> touch(joinpath("app", "resources", "movies", "views", "_movie.jl.html"))

Edit it like this:

<div class="container" style="margin-top: 40px;">
  <h3><% movie.title %></h3>

    <small class="badge bg-primary"><% movie.year %></small> |
    <small class="badge bg-light text-dark"><% movie.type %></small> |
    <small class="badge bg-dark"><% movie.rating %></small>

  <h4><% movie.description %></h4>

  <div><strong>Directed by: </strong><% movie.directors %></div>
  <div><strong>Cast: </strong><% movie.actors %></div>
  <div><strong>Country: </strong><% movie.country %></div>
  <div><strong>Categories: </strong><% movie.categories %></div>

And finally, the _no_results.jl.html partial:

julia> touch(joinpath("app", "resources", "movies", "views", "_no_results.jl.html"))

Which must look like this:

<h4 class="container">
  Sorry, no results were found for "$(params(:search_movies))"

Using the layout file

Let's make the web page nicer by loading the Twitter Bootstrap CSS library. As it will be used across all the pages of the website, we'll load it in the main layout file. Edit /app/layouts/app.jl.html to look like this:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
    <meta charset="utf-8" />
    <title>Genie :: The Highly Productive Julia Web Framework</title>
    <link href="https://cdn.jsdelivr.net/npm/bootstrap@5/dist/css/bootstrap.min.css" rel="stylesheet">
    <div class="container">

Adding the search feature

Now that we can display titles, it's time to implement the search feature. We'll add a search form onto our page. Edit /app/resources/movies/views/index.jl.html to look like this:

<h1 class="display-1 text-center">Watch tonight</h1>

<div class="container" style="margin-top: 40px;">
  <form action="$( Genie.Router.linkto(:search_movies) )">
    <input class="form-control form-control-lg" type="search" name="search_movies" placeholder="Search for movies and TV shows" />

if ! isempty(movies)
  for_each(movies) do movie
    partial(joinpath(Genie.config.path_resources, "movies", "views", "_movie.jl.html"), movie = movie)
  partial(joinpath(Genie.config.path_resources, "movies", "views", "_no_results.jl.html"))

We have added a HTML <form> which submits a query term over GET.

Next, add the route:

route("/movies/search", MoviesController.search, named = :search_movies)

And the MoviesController.search function after updating the using section:

using Genie, Genie.Renderer, Genie.Renderer.Html, SearchLight, WatchTonight.Movies

function search()
  isempty(strip(params(:search_movies))) && redirect(:get_movies)

  movies = find(Movie,
              SQLWhereExpression("title LIKE ? OR categories LIKE ? OR description LIKE ? OR actors LIKE ?",
                                  repeat(['%' * params(:search_movies) * '%'], 4)))

  html(:movies, :index, movies = movies)

Time to check our progress:

Building the REST API

Let's start by adding a new route for the API search:

route("/movies/search_api", MoviesController.search_api)

With the corresponding search_api method in the MoviesController model:

using Genie, Genie.Renderer, Genie.Renderer.Html, SearchLight, WatchTonight.Movies, Genie.Renderer.Json

function search_api()
  movies = find(Movie,
              SQLWhereExpression("title LIKE ? OR categories LIKE ? OR description LIKE ? OR actors LIKE ?",
                                  repeat(['%' * params(:search_movies) * '%'], 4)))

  json(Dict("movies" => movies))


Genie makes it easy to add database backed authentication for restricted area of a website, by using the GenieAuthentication plugin. Start by adding package:

pkg> add GenieAuthentication

julia> using GenieAuthentication

Now, to install the plugin files:

julia> GenieAuthentication.install(@__DIR__)

The plugin has created a create table migration that we need to run UP:

julia> SearchLight.Migration.up("CreateTableUsers")

Let's generate an Admin controller that we'll want to protect by login:

julia> Genie.Generator.newcontroller("Admin", pluralize = false)

Let's load the plugin into the app manually to avoid restarting the app. Upon restarting the application next time, the plugin will be automatically loaded by Genie:

julia> include(joinpath("plugins", "genie_authentication.jl"))

Time to create an admin user for logging in:

julia> using WatchTonight.Users

julia> u = User(email = "admin@admin", name = "Admin", password = Users.hash_password("admin"), username = "admin")

julia> save!(u)

We'll also need a route for the admin area:

using WatchTonight.AdminController

route("/admin/movies", AdminController.index, named = :get_home)

And finally, the controller code:

module AdminController

using GenieAuthentication, Genie.Renderer, Genie.Exceptions, Genie.Renderer.Html

function index()
  h1("Welcome Admin") |> html


If we navigate to we'll be asked to logged in. Using admin for the user and admin for the password will allow us to access the password protected section.